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A virtual function declared in one class can be declared a friend in another class.
]" Friendship, although given through declarations like members, aren't really members so much as notifications of which other classes can essentially ignore the visibility classifications on 'real' members.
I'm not sure whether an 'impostor' class in this scenario would be considered to be breaking encapsulation or to be violating an interface contract if it didn't try to faithfully act its claimed role properly. If B inherits the friendship from A, then because B is a type of A, technically it IS an A that has access to Q's privates.
So this doesn't answer the question with any practical reason. In term of coupling it's the worst relationship (way ahead of inheritance and composition).
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What use is there in granting the second entity privileged access to an arbitrary number of classes derived from the first?While the spec sections you quote explain how the language operates regarding these nuances and frames behavior in self-consistent terminology, things could have been crafted differently, and nothing above gets to the heart of the rationale, unfortunately.Friend function in a class assigns the extern property to the function. extern means that the function has been declared and defined somewhere out of the class.Edit for clarification: I'm talking about the following scenario, for granting friendship to a class or virtual method heirarchy. Any change in the internal representation of a class will require a modification to anything that is dependent on that representation.I dislike the need for boilerplate proxies (which the friended base effectively becomes), but I suppose that this was deemed preferable over a language mechanism that would more likely be misused most of the time. Thus all members of a class and also all friends of the class will require modification. Thus if friendship was inherited you are inadvertently introducing a restriction on the ability to modify a class.
Saying that an interface is available to all the children of other classes rather than an exact class would be much more useful than the system at [email protected]: Exposing the internal representation to all children of a class will cause the code to become unchangeable (it also does actually break encapsulation as anybody that wanted to access the internal members only has to inherit from Bar even if they are not really a Bar)[email protected]: Right, in this scheme the friended base could be used to get at the friending class, which could be simple encapsulation violation in many (if not most) cases.